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Official Verbal Prep Group

Official Verbal Prep Group

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Brief

Discuss your test-specific queries related to the VERBAL section.

Description

The verbal section can be daunting for test takers, especially for non-native users of the English language. In order to achieve a good verbal score, having an active and rigorous preparation cycle is an absolute must, along with valuable resources, such as this group, that will facilitate a smooth prep experience.

Your active participation on this group will facilitate your exposure to a vast variety of test-prep related verbal material, and will get you more aware of the typical errors that you are prone to make on test day. Here’s your chance to ask and answer questions, and get real-time feedback on them. Since the core premise of this group is “discussion”, you have the liberty to interact with the other members and discuss (even debate) your answers.

As an additional resource, “From English, With Love” is going to be your aid and guide to verbal skill-building in general, and is going to help you resolve those minor, yet significant qualms that stand in the way of a good score.

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Discussion

  • 2017-06-30 LEAP Administrator

    Today we will be focusing on Reading comprehension! Remember, you don't need to understand the entire passage, you just need to understand enough to answer the questions!. Good luck

    Passage:

    Current feminist theory, in validating women's own stories of their experience, has encouraged scholars of women's history to view the use of women's oral narratives as the methodology, next to the use of women's written autobiography, that brings historians closest to the "reality" of women's lives. Such narratives, unlike most standard histories, represent experience from the perspective of women, affirm the importance of women’s contributions, and furnish present-day women with historical continuity that is essential to their identity, individually and collectively.

    Scholars of women's history should, however, be as cautious about accepting oral narratives at face value as they already are about written memories. Oral narratives are no more likely than are written narratives to provide a disinterested commentary on events or people. Moreover, the stories people tell to explain themselves are shaped by narrative devices and storytelling conventions, as well as by other cultural and historical factors, in ways that the storytellers may be unaware of. The political rhetoric of a particular era, for example, may influence women's interpretations of the significance of their experience. Thus a woman who views the Second World War as pivotal in increasing the social acceptance of women's paid work outside the home may reach that conclusion partly and unwittingly because of wartime rhetoric encouraging a positive view of women's participation in such work

  • 2017-06-30 LEAP Administrator

    Q.1 The passage is primarily concerned with

    A. contrasting the benefits of one methodology with the benefits of another
    B. describing the historical origins and inherent drawbacks of a particular methodology
    C. discussing the appeal of a particular methodology and some concerns about its use
    D. showing that some historians' adoption of a particular methodology has led to criticism of recent historical scholarship
    E. analyzing the influence of current feminist views on women's interpretations of their experience

    Solution:

    Answer : C

    Type : Big Picture
    A – There are no two methodologies to be discussed.
    B – No historical origins being discussed.
    C – OA
    D – There is no criticism of recent historical scholarship.
    E – Analysis of influence is not being done.

  • 2017-06-30 LEAP Administrator

    Q2. According to the passage, scholars of women's history should refrain from doing which of the following?

    A. Relying on traditional historical sources when women's oral narratives are unavailable
    B. Focusing on the influence of political rhetoric on women's perceptions to the exclusion of other equally important factors
    C. Attempting to discover the cultural and historical factors that influence the stories women tell
    D. Assuming that the conventions of women’s written autobiographies are similar to the conventions of women's oral narratives
    E. Accepting women's oral narratives less critically than they accept women's written histories

    Solution

    OA : E

    Type : Anchor Phrase
    A – There is no information in the passage that talks about focusing on traditional historical sources.
    B – Not mentioned in the passage.
    C – Nothing mentioned about cultural and historical factors.
    D – Not mentioned in the passage
    E – OA

  • 2017-06-30 LEAP Administrator

    Q.3
    According to the passage, each of the following is a difference between women's oral narratives and most standard histories EXCEPT:

    A. Women's oral histories validate the significance of women's achievements.
    B. Women's oral histories depict experience from the point of view of women.
    C. Women's oral histories acknowledge the influence of well-known women.
    D. Women's oral histories present today's women with a sense of their historical relationship to women of the past.
    E. Women's oral histories are crucial to the collective identity of today's women.

    Solution:
    The Correct answer is C

    OA : C
    Type : Except question

    A – Mentioned in the passage
    B – Mentioned in the passage
    C – OA
    D – Mentioned in the passage
    E – Mentioned in the passage

  • 2017-06-29 LEAP Administrator

    Hi,

    Here is an example of how to approach a Reading Comprehension question:
    Passage:
    Traditional social science models of class groups in the United States are based on economic status and assume that women's economic status derives from association with men, typically fathers or husbands, and that women therefore have more compelling common interest with men of their own economic class than with women outside it. Some feminist social scientists, by contrast, have argued that the basic division in American society is instead based on gender, and that the total female population, regardless of economic status, constitutes a distinct class. Social historian Mary Ryan, for example, has argued that in early-nineteenth-century America the identical legal status of working-class and middle-class free women outweighed the differences between women of these two classes: married women, regardless of their family's wealth, did essentially the same unpaid domestic work, and none could own property or vote. Recently, though, other feminist analysts have questioned this model, examining ways in which the condition of working-class women differs from that of middle-class women as well as from that of working-class men. Ann Oakley notes, for example, that the gap between women of different economic classes widened in the late nineteenth century: most working-class women, who performed wage labor outside the home, were excluded from the emerging middle-class ideal of femininity centered around domesticity and volunteerism.

    The primary purpose of the passage is to
    (A) offer socio-historical explanations for the cultural differences between men and women in the United States
    (B) examine how the economic roles of women in the United States changed during the nineteenth century
    (C) consider differing views held by social scientists concerning women's class status in the United States
    (D) propose a feminist interpretation of class structure in the United States
    (E) outline specific distinctions between working-class women and women of the upper and middle classe

    Explanation:
    The passage talks about a theory stated by women and then goes onto explain another theory put forward by the women activists. The passage also then goes onto give examples of Theory 1 and 2.
    A – We don’t know whether the explanations are socio-historical.
    B – The primary purpose of the passage is not to examine how the economic roles of women changed; but it is to put forward the different theories.
    C – OA
    D – We cannot term the interpretation as feminist.
    E – No distinctions are outlined; And this is not the primary purpose

  • 2017-06-03 yasir kundi

    Kindly upload some new and essential vocabulary for GRE prep...

  • 2017-05-31 Elisa Lemos

    OA: B
    The correct idiom is range from x to y. In this sentence, the correct idiom is "paintings that range from sensitive portraits . . . to awe-inspiring views".

  • 2017-05-31 Elisa Lemos

    OA: C
    This sentence describes concern about a potential problem, which is appropriately expressed in subjunctive mood (could be damaged). It uses the idiom "at a time when . . ." to explain the current conditions that make the possible future event a reason for concern. The pseudo-subject "there" introduces unnecessary wordiness. In this sentence, a passive verb emphasizes the speculative nature of the damage caused by the cold snap in Brazil.

  • 2017-05-31 Elisa Lemos

    OA: C
    "The rising of costs" is wordy and awkward. The correct idiom is the more concise "the rising cost". The main verb of the sentence, "has created", requires a singular subject to maintain subject-verb agreement.

  • 2017-05-31 Elisa Lemos

    OA: C
    Who was delighted? The company manager was delighted. The long modifying phrase that introduces the sentence describes a person, not it, so the delighted person must be the subject of the sentence. Correcting the modification error also changes the construction from the wordy passive voice, "it was decided by x", to the more concise active voice, "x decided"; the active voice is generally preferred.

  • 2017-05-31 Elisa Lemos

    OA: D
    The point of the sentence is to describe several features of Megatherium americanum, to identify this creature as a giant ground sloth, and to speculate about its status as the largest hunting mammal in Earth’s history. Megatherium americanum is therefore the sole subject of the sentence. When its features are presented as parallel adjective phrases and its common identification is presented as an appositive, a single main verb may have been is all that is required to
    complete the sentence. When the conjunction and constructs a compound sentence, the subjects it and ground sloth or Megatherium americanum appear to name separate entities.

  • 2017-05-30 Elisa Lemos

    Hello guys! Let's take a look at some Sentence Correction questions. Cheers!

  • 2017-05-30 Elisa Lemos

    1. William H. Johnson’s artistic debt to Scandinavia is evident in paintings that range from sensitive portraits of citizens in his wife’s Danish home, Kerteminde, and awe-inspiring views of fjords and mountain peaks in the western and northern regions of Norway.

    (A) and
    (B) to
    (C) and to
    (D) with
    (E) in addition to

  • 2017-05-30 Elisa Lemos

    2. Coffee prices rose sharply Monday, posting their biggest one-day gain in almost three years, after a weekend cold snap in Brazil raised concern that there could be damage to the world’s largest crop when at a time with supplies already tight.

    (A) that there could be damage to the world’s largest crop when at a time with supplies
    (B) that the world’s largest crop could be damaged at a time such as when supplies are
    (C) that the world’s largest crop could be damaged at a time when supplies are
    (D) of the world’s largest crop possibly being damaged at a time with supplies
    (E) of possibly damaging the world’s largest crop at a time that supplies were

  • 2017-05-30 Elisa Lemos

    3. The rising of costs of data-processing operations at many financial institutions has created a growing opportunity for independent companies to provide these services more efficiently and at lower cost.

    (A) The rising of costs
    (B) Rising costs
    (C) The rising cost
    (D) Because the rising cost
    (E) Because of rising costs

  • 2017-05-30 Elisa Lemos

    4. Delighted by the reported earnings for the first quarter of the fiscal year, it was decided by the company manager to give her staff a raise.

    (A) it was decided by the company manager to give her staff a raise
    (B) the decision of the company manager was to give her staff a raise
    (C) the company manager decided to give her staff a raise
    (D) the staff was given a raise by the company manager
    (E) a raise was given to the staff by the company manager

  • 2017-05-30 Elisa Lemos

    5. It stood twelve feet tall, weighed nine thousand pounds, and wielded seven-inch claws, and Megatherium americanum, a giant ground sloth, may have been the largest hunting mammal ever to walk the Earth.

    (A) It stood twelve feet tall, weighed nine thousand pounds, and wielded seven-inch claws, and Megatherium americanum, a giant ground sloth,
    (B) It stood twelve feet tall, weighing nine thousand pounds, and wielding seven-inch claws, Megatherium americanum was a giant ground sloth and
    (C) The giant ground sloth Megatherium americanum, having stood twelve feet tall, weighing nine thousand pounds, and wielding seven-inch claws, it
    (D) Standing twelve feet tall, weighing nine thousand pounds, and wielding seven-inch claws, Megatherium americanum, a giant ground sloth,
    (E) Standing twelve feet tall, weighing nine thousand pounds, it wielded seven-inch claws, and the giant ground sloth Megatherium americanum

  • 2017-05-17 Elisa Lemos

    OA: D
    This indicates that the plan will not involve extra operating expenses for running trains and thus increases the likelihood that the plan will reduce the operating deficit.

  • 2017-05-17 Elisa Lemos

    OA: C
    Another reasonable explanation of what caused the decrease in automobile traffic and the increase in bus ridership would make this conclusion suspect. Road construction impeding access to midtown over the same period of time is a reasonable alternative explanation. The road construction projects would likely have discouraged people from driving to
    midtown; many of these people have probably taken the bus.

  • 2017-05-17 Elisa Lemos

    OA: D
    The plan is intended to reduce the amount of plastic used by the citizens of the town. The town council’s plan is, however, only as effective as the support it has from the town’s citizens. If the citizens prefer disposable plastic goods and if the goods are also readily available in neighboring towns, there is nothing to stop them from buying the plastic goods elsewhere if that is their preference.

  • 2017-05-17 Elisa Lemos

    OA: B
    The transportation plan will work only if people are likely to use the high-speed ground transportation. If half the flights leaving the busiest airport fly to destinations within range (200–500 miles) of ground transportation, then many people
    might choose high-speed ground transportation over air travel. Then, fewer flights would be needed and airport congestion would
    decrease.

  • 2017-05-17 Elisa Lemos

    OA: A
    Any evidence that closing the unprofitable rural routes would indirectly reduce the profitability of other components of the railroad system would support the conclusion that closing those rural routes will not enhance the system’s profitability. Thus, a statement providing such evidence would logically complete the passage. That's what (A) does.

  • 2017-05-16 Elisa Lemos

    Hello, guys! Let´s take a look at some CR questions this week. Please, justify your answers. Cheers!

  • 2017-05-16 Elisa Lemos

    1. Although Ackerburg’s subway system is currently operating at a deficit, the transit authority will lower subway fares next year. The authority projects that the lower fares will result in a ten percent increase in the number of subway riders. Since the additional income from the larger ridership will more than offset the decrease due to lower fares, the transit authority actually expects the fare reduction to reduce or eliminate the subway system’s operating deficit for next year.

    Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the transit authority’s expectation of reducing the subway system’s operating deficit?

    (A) Throughout the years that the subway system has operated, fares have never before been reduced.
    (B) The planned fare reduction will not apply to students, who can already ride the subway for a reduced fare.
    (C) Next year, the transit authority will have to undertake several large-scale track maintenance projects.
    (D) The subway system can accommodate a ten percent increase in ridership without increasing the number of trains it runs each day.
    (E) The current subway fares in Ackerburg are higher than subway fares in other cities in the region.

  • 2017-05-16 Elisa Lemos

    2. Since the mayor’s publicity campaign for Greenville’s bus service began six months ago, morning automobile traffic into the midtown area of the city has decreased 7 percent. During the same period, there has been an equivalent rise in the number of persons riding buses into the midtown area. Obviously, the mayor’s publicity campaign has convinced many people to leave their cars at home and ride the bus to work.

    Which of the following, if true, casts the most serious doubt on the conclusion drawn above?

    (A) Fares for all bus routes in Greenville have risen an average of 5 percent during the past six months.
    (B) The mayor of Greenville rides the bus to City Hall in the city’s midtown area.
    (C) Road reconstruction has greatly reduced the number of lanes available to commuters in major streets leading to the midtown area during the past six months.
    (D) The number of buses entering the midtown area of Greenville during the morning hours is exactly the same now as it was one year ago.
    (E) Surveys show that longtime bus riders are no more satisfied with the Greenville bus service than they were before the mayor’s publicity campaign began.

  • 2017-05-16 Elisa Lemos

    3. In an attempt to promote the widespread use of paper rather than plastic, and thus reduce nonbiodegradable waste, the council of a small town plans to ban the sale of disposable plastic goods for which substitutes made of paper exist. The council
    argues that since most paper is entirely biodegradable, paper goods are environmentally preferable.

    Which of the following, if true, indicates that the plan to ban the sale of disposable plastic goods is ill suited to the town council’s environmental goals?

    (A) Although biodegradable plastic goods are now available, members of the town council believe biodegradable paper goods to be safer for the environment.
    (B) The paper factory at which most of the townspeople are employed plans to increase production of biodegradable paper goods.
    (C) After other towns enacted similar bans on the sale of plastic goods, the environmental benefits were not discernible for several years.
    (D) Since most townspeople prefer plastic goods to paper goods in many instances, they are likely to purchase them in neighboring towns where plastic goods are available for sale.
    (E) Products other than those derived from wood pulp are often used in the manufacture of paper goods that are entirely biodegradable.

  • 2017-05-16 Elisa Lemos

    4. A cost-effective solution to the problem of airport congestion is to provide high speed ground transportation between major cities lying 200 to 500 miles apart. The successful implementation of this plan would cost far less than expanding existing airports and would also reduce the number of airplanes clogging both airports and airways.

    Which of the following, if true, could proponents of the plan above most appropriately cite as a piece of evidence for the soundness of their plan?

    (A) An effective high-speed ground-transportation system would require major repairs to many highways and mass-transit improvements.
    (B) One-half of all departing flights in the nation’s busiest airport head for a destination in a major city 225 miles away.
    (C) The majority of travelers departing from rural airports are flying to destinations in cities over 600 miles away.
    (D) Many new airports are being built in areas that are presently served by high-speed ground-transportation systems.
    (E) A large proportion of air travelers are vacationers who are taking long distance flights.

  • 2017-05-16 Elisa Lemos

    5. Which of the following most logically completes the passage?
    A business analysis of the Appenian railroad system divided its long-distance passenger routes into two categories: rural routes and interurban routes. The analysis found that, unlike the interurban routes, few rural routes carried a high enough passenger volume to be profitable. Closing unprofitable rural routes, however, will not necessarily enhance the profitability of the whole system, since ______________.
    .
    (A) a large part of the passenger volume on interurban routes is accounted for by passengers who begin or end their journeys on rural routes
    (B) within the last two decades several of the least used rural routes have been closed and their passenger services have been replaced by buses
    (C) the rural routes were all originally constructed at least one hundred years ago, whereas some of the interurban routes were constructed recently for new high-speed express trains
    (D) not all of Appenia’s large cities are equally well served by interurban railroad services
    (E) the greatest passenger volume, relative to the routes’ capacity, is not on either category of long-distance routes but is on suburban commuter routes

  • 2017-05-16 Elisa Lemos

    OA: E
    The sentence explains that fish discharge electric currents for several purposes, which are most efficiently and effectively described in a parallel structure: to find and attack, to defend, or to communicate and navigate. The use of either is
    inappropriate in this sentence because more than two uses of electric currents are listed; idiomatic usage requires either to be followed by or to identify alternatives, not by also.

  • 2017-05-16 Elisa Lemos

    OA: E
    This version of the sentence correctly uses the phrase such as to introduce the two examples of extreme weather changes, and it correctly identifies the sequence of events in the first example.

  • 2017-05-16 Elisa Lemos

    OA: D
    This sentence uses the idiomatic expression not only X but also Y to present two purposes of the conference. This expression requires parallel constructions. In this sentence, not only . . . but also . . . should follow the verb was, making both purposes predicate nominatives.

  • 2017-05-16 Elisa Lemos

    OA: E
    The sentence most effectively uses parallel structure to contrast two types of termites in the social structure of termite colonies: those who reproduce, and those who serve the colony in a number of ways. The progressive verb form are serving should be changed to simple present tense serve to parallel reproduce. In the final list of responsibilities, parallelism demands that all assume the gerund form as objects of the preposition: by tending . . . gathering . . . building . . . or battling.

  • 2017-05-16 Elisa Lemos

    OA: B
    The original sentence has an error in parallel structure. It starts by using the ing (participial) form to list the bats’ duties. Defending, acting, and scouting all use the same ing form. The phrase to sound uses the to (infinitive) form, and so it is not parallel. The word sounding is required in this sentence.

  • 2017-05-06 Necta Mwitory

    E.

  • 2017-05-06 Necta Mwitory

    D.

  • 2017-05-06 Necta Mwitory

    E.

  • 2017-05-06 Necta Mwitory

    B.

  • 2017-05-06 Necta Mwitory

    B.

  • 2017-05-03 Elisa Lemos

    Hello, guys! Let's take a look at some Sentence Correction questions.

  • 2017-05-03 Elisa Lemos

    1. Hundreds of species of fish generate and discharge electric currents, in bursts or as steady electric fields around their bodies, using their power either to find and attack prey, to defend themselves, or also for communicating and navigating.

    (A) either to find and attack prey, to defend themselves, or also for communicating and navigating
    (B) either for finding and attacking prey, defend themselves, or for communication and navigation
    (C) to find and attack prey, for defense, or communication and navigation
    (D) for finding and attacking prey, to defend themselves, or also for communication and navigation
    (E) to find and attack prey, to defend themselves, or to communicate and navigate

  • 2017-05-03 Elisa Lemos

    2. Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that take on different duties such as defending the entrance, acting as sentinels and to sound a warning at the approach of danger, and scouting outside the cave for new food and roosting sites.

    (A) acting as sentinels and to sound
    (B) acting as sentinels and sounding
    (C) to act as sentinels and sound
    (D) to act as sentinels and to sound
    (E) to act as a sentinel sounding

  • 2017-05-03 Elisa Lemos

    3. Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes, which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California, and the heat wave in the northeastern and midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction.

    (A) which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California,
    (B) which, like the heavy rains that throughout the state of California caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding,
    (C) like the heavy flooding that, because of rains throughout the state of California, caused more than $2 billion in damages,
    (D) such as the heavy flooding that led to rains throughout the state of California causing more than $2 billion in damages,
    (E) such as the heavy rains that led to flooding throughout the state of California, causing more than $2 billion in damages,

  • 2017-05-03 Elisa Lemos

    4. Some 200 world-famous physicists recently attended a conference whose purpose not only was to consider the prospects for the next 50 years of research in physics but also assessing the accuracy of the predictions made at the last meeting of this
    type,
    which took place 50 years earlier.

    (A) not only was to consider the prospects for the next 50 years of research in physics but also assessing the accuracy of the predictions made at the last meeting of this type,
    (B) not only was considering the prospects for the next 50 years of research in physics but also assessing the accuracy of the predictions which were made at the last meeting of this type and
    (C) was not only considering the prospects for the next 50 years of research in physics but also to assess the accuracy of the predictions made at the last meeting of this type and
    (D) was not only to consider the prospects for the next 50 years of research in physics but also to assess the accuracy of the predictions made at the last meeting of this type,
    (E) was to consider not only the prospects for the next 50 years of research in physics but also assessing the accuracy of the predictions made at the last meeting of this type,

  • 2017-05-03 Elisa Lemos

    5. Like ants, termites have an elaborate social structure in which a few individuals reproduce and the rest are serving the colony by tending juveniles, gathering food, building the nest, or they battle intruders.

    (A) are serving the colony by tending juveniles, gathering food, building the nest, or they battle
    (B) are serving the colony in that they tend juveniles, gather food, build the nest, or battle
    (C) serve the colony, tending juveniles, gathering food, building the nest, or by battling
    (D) serve the colony by tending juveniles, gathering food, by building the nest, or by battling
    (E) serve the colony by tending juveniles, gathering food, building the nest, or battling

  • 2017-04-20 Tanushree Sharma

    C should be the answer

  • 2017-04-19 Elisa Lemos

    OA: D
    The intended meaning of the sentence is that the rapid movement of people across North America is one explanation of the similarity of Thule artifacts throughout a vast region. As worded, however, the sentence is illogical: The sentence indicates that the similarity in artifacts was a rapid movement of people, which makes no sense. Instead of equating similarity with movement, the sentence needs to identify this movement of people as a cause of similarity among artifacts.

  • 2017-04-19 Elisa Lemos

    OA: E
    The opening clause correctly modifies "many people", and the adverb is correctly placed.

  • 2017-04-19 Elisa Lemos

    OA: B
    This version correctly conjoins two parallel phrases, Gandhi as a person and as a politician, and, in using two simple past tenses to introduce the two emotions, marks them as holding at the same time.

  • 2017-04-19 Elisa Lemos

    OA: E
    The idiomatic phrase as x as y is properly used, and the comparison is clear and parallel.

  • 2017-04-19 Elisa Lemos

    OA: E
    The original sentence fails because of the mismatch between "with none of . . ." and "or with . . ." . One way to successfully convey the intended meaning is to use the preposition "without" governing all the items in the series, expressed as nouns or noun phrases.

  • 2017-04-18 Elisa Lemos

    Hello, guys. Let's take a look at some Sentence Correction questions. Cheers!

  • 2017-04-18 Elisa Lemos

    1. In the early part of the twentieth century, many vacationers found that driving automobiles and sleeping in tents allowed them to enjoy nature close at hand and tour at their own pace, with none of the restrictions of passenger trains and railroad timetables or with the formalities, expenses, and impersonality of hotels.

    (A) with none of the restrictions of passenger trains and railroad timetables or with the
    (B) with none of the restrictions of passenger trains, railroad timetables, nor
    (C) without the restrictions of passenger trains and railroad timetables nor
    (D) without the restrictions of passenger trains and railroad timetables or with the
    (E) without the restrictions of passenger trains and railroad timetables or the

  • 2017-04-18 Elisa Lemos

    2. Not trusting themselves to choose wisely among the wide array of investment opportunities on the market, stockbrokers are helping many people who turn to them to buy stocks that could be easily bought directly.

    (A) stockbrokers are helping many people who turn to them to buy stocks that could be easily
    (B) stockbrokers are helping many people who are turning to them for help in buying stocks that they could easily have
    (C) many people are turning to stockbrokers for help from them to buy stocks that could be easily
    (D) many people are turning to stockbrokers for help to buy stocks that easily could have been
    (E) many people are turning to stockbrokers for help in buying stocks that could easily be

  • 2017-04-18 Elisa Lemos

    3. Traffic safety officials predict that drivers will be equally likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as the current one.

    (A) equally likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as
    (B) equally likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as they are
    (C) equally likely that they will exceed the proposed speed limit as
    (D) as likely that they will exceed the proposed speed limit as
    (E) as likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as they are

  • 2017-04-18 Elisa Lemos

    4. Bengal-born writer, philosopher, and educator Rabindranath Tagore had the greatest admiration for Mohandas K. Gandhi the person and also as a politician, but Tagore had been skeptical of Gandhi’s form of nationalism and his conservative opinions about India’s cultural traditions.

    (A) for Mohandas K. Gandhi the person and also as a politician, but Tagore had been
    (B) for Mohandas K. Gandhi as a person and as a politician, but Tagore was also
    (C) for Mohandas K. Gandhi not only as a person and as a politician, but Tagore was also
    (D) of Mohandas K. Gandhi as a person and as also a politician, but Tagore was
    (E) of Mohandas K. Gandhi not only as a person and as a politician, but Tagore had also been

  • 2017-04-18 Elisa Lemos

    5. The remarkable similarity of Thule artifacts throughout a vast region can, in part, be explained as a very rapid movement of people from one end of North America to the other.

    (A) The remarkable similarity of Thule artifacts throughout a vast region can, in part, be explained as
    (B) Thule artifacts being remarkably similar throughout a vast region, one explanation is
    (C) That Thule artifacts are remarkably similar throughout a vast region is,in part, explainable as
    (D) One explanation for the remarkable similarity of Thule artifacts throughout a vast region is that there was
    (E) Throughout a vast region Thule artifacts are remarkably similar, with one explanation for this being

  • 2017-04-05 Elisa Lemos

    OA: D
    Which statement would NOT be accepted by those objecting to the measure? The point of the objection is that the number of letters delivered is, by itself, an inadequate measure of postal workers’ productivity. The challenge introduces the issue of the quality of the work being performed by suggesting that the number of misdirected letters should also be
    taken into account. The challenge is based on rejecting the idea that quality can be ignored when measuring productivity.

  • 2017-04-05 Elisa Lemos

    OA: C
    Th e custom replacements must be compared with the ordinary replacements on the basis of the costs of surgery, recovery,and potential repeat hospitalizations. Repeat surgery involves all three kinds of costs; the extent to which such repeat surgery can be avoided is a sound measure of the cost-effectiveness of the two types of replacements.

  • 2017-04-05 Elisa Lemos

    OA: D
    Cutting
    the number of truckloads of refuse in half must reduce the amount of residual ash to half last year’s level. But if removal of the recycled refuse does not proportionately reduce the amount of ash, this will not happen. So if the amount of residual ash produced per truckload increases after recycling, then the amount of ash produced will not be cut in half by cutting in half the number of truckloads.

  • 2017-04-05 Elisa Lemos

    OA: A
    This statement properly identifies an additional premise that would invalidate the argument. If collard greens > kale, then it is possible that lettuce > kale, because the ranking could be collard greens > lettuce > kale > spinach.

  • 2017-04-05 Elisa Lemos

    OA: E
    This statement properly identifies the logical flaw in the reasoning, which takes evidence about average weight to draw a conclusion about average weight gain. The two measures are not the same.

  • 2017-04-05 Elisa Lemos

    Hello, guys! This week, let's tackle some Critical Reasoning questions. Cheers!

  • 2017-04-05 Elisa Lemos

    1. Correctly measuring the productivity of service workers is complex. Consider, for example, postal workers: they are often said to be more productive if more letters are delivered per postal worker. But is this really true? What if more letters are lost or delayed per worker at the same time that more are delivered?
    The objection implied above to the productivity measure described is based on doubts about the truth of which of the following statements?
    (A) Postal workers are representative of service workers in general.
    (B) The delivery of letters is the primary activity of the postal service.
    (C) Productivity should be ascribed to categories of workers, not to individuals.
    (D) The quality of services rendered can appropriately be ignored in computing productivity.
    (E) The number of letters delivered is relevant to measuring the productivity of postal workers.

  • 2017-04-05 Elisa Lemos

    2. Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced through a new computer-aided design process will cost more than twice as much as ordinary replacements, custom replacements should still be cost-effective. Not only will surgery and recovery time be reduced, but custom replacements should last longer, thereby reducing the need for further hospital stays.
    Which of the following must be studied in order to evaluate the argument presented above?

    (A) The amount of time a patient spends in surgery versus the amount of time spent recovering from surgery
    (B) The amount by which the cost of producing custom replacements has declined with the introduction of the new technique for producing them
    (C) The degree to which the use of custom replacements is likely to reduce the need for repeat surgery when compared with the use of ordinary replacements
    (D) The degree to which custom replacements produced with the new technique are more carefully manufactured than are ordinary replacements
    (E) The amount by which custom replacements produced with the new technique will drop in cost as the production procedures become standardized and applicable on a larger scale

  • 2017-04-05 Elisa Lemos

    3. Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year’s total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year’s number.
    Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

    (A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
    (B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
    (C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
    (D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
    (E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city services this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

  • 2017-04-05 Elisa Lemos

    4. Kale has more nutritional value than spinach. But since collard greens have more nutritional value than lettuce, it follows that kale has more nutritional value than lettuce.
    Any of the following, if introduced into the argument as an additional premise, makes the argument above logically correct EXCEPT:
    (A) Collard greens have more nutritional value than kale.
    (B) Spinach has more nutritional value than lettuce.
    (C) Spinach has more nutritional value than collard greens.
    (D) Spinach and collard greens have the same nutritional value.
    (E) Kale and collard greens have the same nutritional value.

  • 2017-04-05 Elisa Lemos

    5. The average normal infant born in the United States weighs between 12 and 14 pounds at the age of three months. Therefore, if a three-month-old child weighs only 10 pounds, its weight gain has been below the United States average.

    Which of the following indicates a flaw in the reasoning above?

    (A) Weight is only one measure of normal infant development.
    (B) Some three-month-old children weigh as much as 17 pounds.
    (C) It is possible for a normal child to weigh 10 pounds at birth.
    (D) The phrase “below average” does not necessarily mean insufficient.
    (E) Average weight gain is not the same as average weight.

  • 2017-03-22 Elisa Lemos

    OA: C
    This accurately describes the flaw in the argument because the reasons given in the argument for its conclusion would be good reasons only if there were no other plausible explanations for Parland’s greater labor productivity.

  • 2017-03-22 Elisa Lemos

    OA: A
    If the frame were not made of wood local to the region where the picture was painted, or if that region in turn were not where the painter was from, then the cited fact about where the wood was more common would be irrelevant to the conclusion about who painted the picture.

  • 2017-03-22 Elisa Lemos

    OA: B
    This suggests that the snow could have collapsed the roof even if the nails had met the safety standards, thus casting doubt on the assumption that the nails’ inadequacy was responsible for the collapse.

  • 2017-03-22 Elisa Lemos

    OA: A
    If the tax will fund these public transit improvements, then far more people will have a viable means of transportation other than driving, undermining the basis of the skeptics’ objection.

  • 2017-03-22 Elisa Lemos

    OA: E
    If the evolutionary function of memory is to help animals react more appropriately by drawing on generalizations from past experiences, it follows that animal memories can often successfully serve this function in this manner.

  • 2017-03-21 Elisa Lemos

    Hello there! Welcome to another Verbal Wednesday. Let's take a look at some Critical Reasoning questions this week.

  • 2017-03-21 Elisa Lemos

    1. In virtually any industry, technological improvements increase labor productivity, which is the output of goods and services per person-hour worked. In Parland’s industries, labor productivity is significantly higher than it is in Vergia’s industries.
    Clearly, therefore, Parland’s industries must, on the whole, be further advanced technologically than Vergia’s are.
    The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

    (A) It offers a conclusion that is no more than a paraphrase of one of the pieces of information provided in its support.
    (B) It presents as evidence in support of a claim information that is inconsistent with other evidence presented in support of the same claim.
    (C) It takes one possible cause of a condition to be the actual cause of that condition without considering any other possible causes.
    (D) It takes a condition to be the effect of something that happened only after the condition already existed.
    (E) It makes a distinction that presupposes the truth of the conclusion that is to be established.

  • 2017-03-21 Elisa Lemos

    2. A newly discovered painting seems to be the work of one of two seventeenth century artists, either the northern German Johannes Drechen or the Frenchman Louis Birelle, who sometimes painted in the same style as Drechen. Analysis of the
    carved picture frame, which has been identified as the painting’s original seventeenth-century frame, showed that it is made of wood found widely in northern Germany at the time, but rare in the part of France where Birelle lived. This shows that the painting is most likely the work of Drechen.
    Which of the following is an assumption that the argument requires?

    (A) The frame was made from wood local to the region where the picture was painted.
    (B) Drechen is unlikely to have ever visited the home region of Birelle in France.
    (C) Sometimes a painting so resembles others of its era that no expert is able to confidently decide who painted it.
    (D) The painter of the picture chose the frame for the picture.
    (E) The carving style of the picture frame is not typical of any specific region of Europe.

  • 2017-03-21 Elisa Lemos

    3. Editorial: The roof of Northtown’s municipal equipment-storage building collapsed under the weight of last week’s heavy snowfall. The building was constructed recently and met local building-safety codes in every particular, except that the
    nails used for attaching roof supports to the building’s columns were of a smaller size than the codes specify for this purpose. Clearly, this collapse exemplifies how even a single, apparently insignificant departure from safety standards can have
    severe consequences.
    Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the editorial’s argument?

    (A) The only other buildings to suffer roof collapses from the weight of the snowfall were older buildings constructed according to less exacting standards than those in the codes.
    (B) The amount of snow that accumulated on the roof of the equipment-storage building was greater than the predicted maximum that was used in drawing up the safety codes.
    (C) Because the equipment-storage building was not intended for human occupation, some safety-code provisions that would have applied to an office building did not apply to it.
    (D) The municipality of Northtown itself has the responsibility for ensuring that buildings constructed within its boundaries meet the provisions of the building-safety codes.
    (E) Because the equipment-storage building was used for storing snow-removal equipment, the building was almost completely empty when the roof collapsed.

  • 2017-03-21 Elisa Lemos

    4. A provincial government plans to raise the gasoline tax to give people an incentive to drive less, reducing traffic congestion in the long term. However, skeptics point out that most people in the province live in areas where cars are the only viable
    transportation to jobs and stores and therefore cannot greatly change their driving habits in response to higher gasoline prices.
    In light of the skeptics’ objection, which of the following, if true, would most logically support the prediction that the government’s plan will achieve its goal of reducing traffic congestion?

    (A) The revenue from the tax will be used to make public transportation a viable means of transportation to jobs and stores for far more people.
    (B) The tax will encourage many residents to switch to more fuel-efficient cars, reducing air pollution and other problems.
    (C) Because gasoline has been underpriced for decades, the province has many neighborhoods where cars are the only viable means of transportation.
    (D) Most residents who cannot greatly change their driving habits could compensate for high gasoline prices by reducing other expenses.
    (E) Traffic congestion is an especially serious problem for people for whom cars are the only viable means of transportation.

  • 2017-03-21 Elisa Lemos

    5. Neuroscientist: Memory evolved to help animals react appropriately to situations they encounter by drawing on the past experience of similar situations. But this does not require that animals perfectly recall every detail of all their experiences.
    Instead, to function well, memory should generalize from past experiences that are similar to the current one.
    The neuroscientist’s statements, if true, most strongly support which of the following conclusions?

    (A) At least some animals perfectly recall every detail of at least some past experiences.
    (B) Perfectly recalling every detail of all their past experiences could help at least some animals react more appropriately than they otherwise would to new situations they encounter.
    (C) Generalizing from past experiences requires clear memories of most if not all the details of those experiences.
    (D) Recalling every detail of all past experiences would be incompatible with any ability to generalize from those experiences.
    (E) Animals can often react more appropriately than they otherwise would to situations they encounter if they draw on generalizations from past experiences of similar situations.

  • 2017-03-08 Elisa Lemos

    OA: Unlike (A) and (B), this version has a main clause. Also, unlike the other version, it correctly uses the both x and y form.

  • 2017-03-08 Elisa Lemos

    OA: D
    This version correctly uses the idiom "proof that" followed by an assertion.

  • 2017-03-08 Elisa Lemos

    OA: C
    This version correctly uses the form both x and y and is grammatically correct.

  • 2017-03-08 Elisa Lemos

    OA: C
    This version correctly draws the contrast between "raider ants" and "other kinds of ants". Furthermore, unlike in (B) and (D), it is clear here that situated underground or in pieces of wood applies to the nests of leaf cutters and most other ants.

  • 2017-03-08 Elisa Lemos

    OA: C
    This has correct subject-verb agreement, eliminates the wordiness of the original sentence, and the phrases "whether . . . warmer" and "to what extent" are parallel.

  • 2017-03-08 Elisa Lemos

    Hello, guys! Welcome to another Verbal Wednesday! Let's take a look at some Sentence Correction questions.

  • 2017-03-08 Elisa Lemos

    1. Discussion of greenhouse effects have usually had as a focus the possibility of Earth growing warmer and to what extent it might, but climatologists have indicated all along that precipitation, storminess, and temperature extremes are likely to have the greatest impact on people.

    (A) Discussion of greenhouse effects have usually had as a focus the possibility of Earth growing warmer and to what extent it might,
    (B) Discussion of greenhouse effects has usually had as its focus whether Earth would get warmer and what the extent would be,
    (C) Discussion of greenhouse effects has usually focused on whether Earth would grow warmer and to what extent,
    (D) The discussion of greenhouse effects have usually focused on the possibility of Earth getting warmer and to what extent it might,
    (E) The discussion of greenhouse effects has usually focused on whether Earth would grow warmer and the extent that is,

  • 2017-03-08 Elisa Lemos

    2. Unlike the nests of leaf cutters and most other ants, situated underground or in pieces of wood, raider ants make a portable nest by entwining their long legs to form “curtains” of ants that hang from logs or boulders, providing protection for the queen and the colony larvae and pupae.
    (A) the nests of leaf cutters and most other ants,
    (B) the nests of leaf cutters and most other ants, which are
    (C) leaf cutters and most other ants, whose nests are
    (D) leaf cutters and most other ants in having nests
    (E) those of leaf cutters and most other ants with nests

  • 2017-03-08 Elisa Lemos

    3. Although Alice Walker published a number of essays, poetry collections, and stories during the 1970s, her third novel, The Color Purple, which was published in 1982, brought her the widest acclaim in that it won both the National Book Award as well as the Pulitzer Prize.
    (A) which was published in 1982, brought her the widest acclaim in that it won both the National Book Award as well as the Pulitzer Prize
    (B) published in 1982, bringing her the widest acclaim by winning both the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize
    (C) published in 1982, brought her the widest acclaim, winning both the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize
    (D) was published in 1982 and which, winning both the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize, brought her the widest acclaim
    (E) was published in 1982, winning both the National Book Award as well as the Pulitzer Prize, and bringing her the widest acclaim

  • 2017-03-08 Elisa Lemos

    4. From an experiment using special extrasensory perception cards, each bearing one of a set of symbols, parapsychologist Joseph Banks Rhine claimed statistical proof for subjects who could use thought transference to identify a card in the dealer’s
    hand
    .
    (A) for subjects who could use thought transference to identify a card in the dealer’s hand
    (B) for a card in the dealer’s hand to be identified by subjects with thought transference
    (C) of subjects able to identify with thought transference a card in the dealer’s hand
    (D) that subjects could identify a card in the dealer’s hand by using thought transference
    (E) that subjects are capable to use thought transference for identifying a card in the dealer’s hand

  • 2017-03-08 Elisa Lemos

    5. While Noble Sissle may be best known for his collaboration with Eubie Blake, as both a vaudeville performer and as a lyricist for songs and Broadway musicals, also enjoying an independent career as a singer with such groups as Hahn’s Jubilee Singers.

    (A) and as a lyricist for songs and Broadway musicals, also enjoying
    (B) and writing lyrics for songs and Broadway musicals, also enjoying
    (C) and a lyricist for songs and Broadway musicals, he also enjoyed
    (D) as well as writing lyrics for songs and Broadway musicals, he also enjoyed
    (E) as well as a lyricist for songs and Broadway musicals, he had also enjoyed

  • 2017-02-22 Elisa Lemos

    OA: C
    This sentence describes two sequentially ordered indicators by which the results of a company’s cost cutting measures can be seen. The first indicator to be identified, a 5 percent increase in profits, occurred after the indicator mentioned next. The sentence therefore needs to clarify the sequence by presenting the first-identified indicator in a clause
    with a verb tense that indicates a later time period than the verb tense in the clause presenting the second-identified indicator. The subject of the relative clause, which, refers to the plural noun profits, so subsequent pronouns referring to these profits must also be plural.

  • 2017-02-22 Elisa Lemos

    OA:C
    This sentence correctly uses the not by … but by … formula. And "or" instead of "and" is used

  • 2017-02-22 Elisa Lemos

    OA: E
    In this concise sentence, many is correctly used with dioxins, and the subject and verb agree.

  • 2017-02-22 Elisa Lemos

    OA: B
    The verb tense clearly indicates that the current evidence is about Neanderthals in the past.

  • 2017-02-22 Elisa Lemos

    OA: A
    The idiom "as a means to" is correct in this sentence; "stressing" and "investing" are parallel.

  • 2017-02-21 Elisa Lemos

    Hello there! Welcome to Verbal Wednesday! Let´s take a look at some Sentence Correction questions. Cheers!

  • 2017-02-21 Elisa Lemos

    1. The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

    (A) which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell
    (B) which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen
    (C) which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling
    (D) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
    (E) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

  • 2017-02-21 Elisa Lemos

    2. Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.

    (A) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
    (B) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by
    (C) caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by
    (D) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but
    (E) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

  • 2017-02-21 Elisa Lemos

    3. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.

    (A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
    (B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
    (C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
    (D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
    (E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come

  • 2017-02-21 Elisa Lemos

    4. Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

    (A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
    (B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
    (C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,
    (D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,
    (E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

  • 2017-02-21 Elisa Lemos

    5. More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.

    (A) to greater economic development and investing
    (B) to greater development economically and investing
    (C) of greater economic development and invest
    (D) of greater development economically and invest
    (E) for greater economic development and the investment of


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