GMAT - Critical Reasoning - Argument Evaluation
Keith: Compliance with new government regulations requiring the installation of smoke alarms and sprinkler systems in all theaters and arenas will cost the entertainment industry $25 billion annually. Consequently, jobs will be lost and profits diminished. Therefore, these regulations will harm the country’s economy.
Laura: The $25 billion spent by some businesses will be revenue for others. Jobs and profits will be gained as well as lost.
Laura responds to Keith by
(A) demonstrating that Keith’s conclusion is based on evidence that is not relevant to the issue at hand
(B) challenging the plausibility of the evidence that serves as the basis for Keith’s argument
(C) suggesting that Keith’s argument overlooks a mitigating consequence
(D) reinforcing Keith’s conclusion by supplying a complementary interpretation of the evidence Keith cites
(E) agreeing with the main conclusion of Keith’s argument but construing that conclusion as grounds for optimism rather than for pessimism
Although all birds have feathers and all birds have wings, some birds do not fly. For example, penguins and ostriches use their wings to move in a different way from other birds. Penguins use their wings only to swim under water at high speeds. Ostriches (more)
Although all birds have feathers and all birds have wings, some birds do not fly. For example, penguins and ostriches use their wings to move in a different way from other birds. Penguins use their wings only to swim under water at high speeds. Ostriches use their wings only to run with the wind by lifting them as if they were sails.
Which one of the following is most parallel in its reasoning to the argument above?
(A) Ancient philosophers tried to explain not how the world functions but why it functions. In contrast, most contemporary biologists seek comprehensive theories of how organisms function, but many refuse to speculate about purpose.
(B) Some chairs are used only as decorations, and other chairs are used only to tame lions. Therefore, not all chairs are used for sitting in despite the fact that all chairs have a seat and some support such as legs.
(C) Some musicians in a symphony orchestra play the violin, and others play the viola, but these are both in the same category of musical instruments, namely string instruments.
(D) All cars have similar drive mechanisms, but some cars derive their power from solar energy, whereas others burn gasoline. Thus, solar-powered cars are less efficient than gasoline-powered ones.
(E) Sailing ships move in a different way from steamships. Both sailing ships and steamships navigate over water, but only sailing ships use sails to move over the surface.
The question asks us to select an answer choice that is similar in construction to the passage given. The passage says that all birds have feathers and wings but the way they use it differs among different birds. Then we see an example of how penguins use their wings to swim and ostriches use their wings to run. The body part is the same, but the way it is used is different.
(A) Incorrect as there is no parallel between the passage and this situation. The passage does not get into discussing how and why rather it just states facts. This answer choice gets into discussions.
(B) Correct answer choice as the subject is the same i.e. chair and then we see how its usage is different. This forms a parallel with the original passage.
(C) Incorrect as the comparison is between two different things, violin and viola while the original passage discusses the same thing i.e. wings.
(D) Incorrect as there is no discussion on which is better in the original passage.
(E) Incorrect as the comparison is between two different things i.e. sailing ships and steamships, unlike the original passage where the discussion is on the same things, wings.