GMAT - Critical Reasoning - Critical Reasoning
Although there is no record of poet Edmund Spenser’s parentage, we do know that as a youth Spenser attended the Merchant Tailors’ School in London for a period between 1560 and 1570. Records from this time indicate that the Merchant Tailors’ Guild then had only three members named Spenser: Robert Spenser, listed as a gentleman; Nicholas Spenser, elected the Guild’s Warden in 1568; and John Spenser, listed as a “journeyman cloth-maker.” Of these, the last was likely the least affluent of the three—and most likely Edmund’s father, since school accounting records list Edmund as a scholar who attended the school at a reduced fee.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A)Anybody in sixteenth-century London who made clothing professionally would have had to be a member of the Merchant Tailors’ Guild.
I am still confused on how to use the resources on your website . How to update my target score and study plan and how to communicate if i have questions (more)
I am still confused on how to use the resouses on your website . HOw to update my target score and study plan and how to communicate if i have questions
Once you set your target score you will not be able to change it. Since your study schedule is based on your target score, that too will remain the same.
With regards to using the resources here is how you can access them:
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I hope this helps.
Although all birds have feathers and all birds have wings, some birds do not fly. For example, penguins and ostriches use their wings to move in a different way from other birds. Penguins use their wings only to swim under water at high speeds. Ostriches (more)
Although all birds have feathers and all birds have wings, some birds do not fly. For example, penguins and ostriches use their wings to move in a different way from other birds. Penguins use their wings only to swim under water at high speeds. Ostriches use their wings only to run with the wind by lifting them as if they were sails.
Which one of the following is most parallel in its reasoning to the argument above?
(A) Ancient philosophers tried to explain not how the world functions but why it functions. In contrast, most contemporary biologists seek comprehensive theories of how organisms function, but many refuse to speculate about purpose.
(B) Some chairs are used only as decorations, and other chairs are used only to tame lions. Therefore, not all chairs are used for sitting in despite the fact that all chairs have a seat and some support such as legs.
(C) Some musicians in a symphony orchestra play the violin, and others play the viola, but these are both in the same category of musical instruments, namely string instruments.
(D) All cars have similar drive mechanisms, but some cars derive their power from solar energy, whereas others burn gasoline. Thus, solar-powered cars are less efficient than gasoline-powered ones.
(E) Sailing ships move in a different way from steamships. Both sailing ships and steamships navigate over water, but only sailing ships use sails to move over the surface.
The question asks us to select an answer choice that is similar in construction to the passage given. The passage says that all birds have feathers and wings but the way they use it differs among different birds. Then we see an example of how penguins use their wings to swim and ostriches use their wings to run. The body part is the same, but the way it is used is different.
(A) Incorrect as there is no parallel between the passage and this situation. The passage does not get into discussing how and why rather it just states facts. This answer choice gets into discussions.
(B) Correct answer choice as the subject is the same i.e. chair and then we see how its usage is different. This forms a parallel with the original passage.
(C) Incorrect as the comparison is between two different things, violin and viola while the original passage discusses the same thing i.e. wings.
(D) Incorrect as there is no discussion on which is better in the original passage.
(E) Incorrect as the comparison is between two different things i.e. sailing ships and steamships, unlike the original passage where the discussion is on the same things, wings.
In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be patented, such drugs are sold at widely affordable prices (more)
In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be patented, such drugs are sold at widely affordable prices; those same drugs, where patented, command premium prices because the patents shield patent-holding company from competitors. These facts show that future access to new life sustaining drugs can be improved if the practice of granting patents on newly developed life-sustaining drugs were to be abolished everywhere.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
(A) In countries in which life-sustaining drugs cannot be patented, their manufacturer is neverthless a profitable enterprise.
(B) Countries that do not currently grant patents on life-sustaining drugs are, for the most part, countries with large populations.
(C) In some countries specific processes for the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs can be patented even in cases in which the drugs themselves cannot be patented.
(D) Pharmaceutical companies can afford the research that go into the development of new drugs only if patents allow them to earn high profits.
(E) Countries that grant patents on life-sustaining drugs almost always ban their importation from countries that do not grant such patents.
The conclusion states that if the practice of granting patents are abolished, then access to life-saving drugs will be improved. We need an answer choice that weakens this claim. Answer choice A and B seem out of context as they do not impact access to life-saving drugs. Patenting a process and not the drug will not have an impact on accessibility. Answer choice D is correct because if there is no new research taking place due to a shortage of funds, then the lives of people is at stake. So if the patenting is abolished it will lead to a stagnation in research which will then impact the future of people.
The prairie vole, a small North American grassland rodent, breeds year round, and a group of voles living togather consists primarily of an extended family, often including two or more litters. Voles commonly live in large groups from late autumn to winter; from spring through early autumn, however, most voles live in far smaller groups. The seasonal variation in groups size can probably be explained by a seasonal variation in mortality among young voles.
Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest support for the explanation above?
A) It is the spring and in the early summer that prairie vole communities generally contain the highest proportion of young voles.
B) Prairie vole populations vary dramatically in size from year to year.
C) The prairie vole subsists primarily on broad-leaved plants that are abundant only in spring.
D) Winters in prairie vole's habitat are often harsh, with temperatures that drop well below freezing.
E) Snakes, a major predator of young prairie voles, are active only from spring through early autumn.
The conclusion of the passage is; among the young voles, seasonal variation in group size can perhaps be explained by a seasonal variation in mortality. the passage tells us that voles are grassland rodent, they breed year round, they live in groups. The group size is the largest from late autumn to winter. The size of the group is smaller from spring to early autumn.
The question asks us to choose an answer that strengthens the conclusion.
A) This is incorrect as the passage tells us that the vole group size is small during spring to early autumn. Summer comes after spring and before autumn, which means the size is small even during summer.
B) This has already been mentioned clearly in the passage, so this answer choice is not adding any new premise to strengthen the conclusion and hence is eliminated.
C) If the voles depended on broad-leaved plants for their food, which is abundant in spring, then the rodents must have a high mortality rate and hence, a larger group during spring. But the passage tells us that during spring the groups are small. This answer is also eliminated.
D) This weakens the conclusion as the passage provides support for larger groups during winter. And if winters were harsh then the voles mortality rate would drop, hence we eliminate this answer choice.
E) This is the correct answer as rodents are prey for snakes and if they are active from spring through early autumn, the same time when the voles group size reduces, it means that they are being eaten by the snakes. This answer choice strengthens the conclusion and hence is the correct choice.