GMAT - Critical Reasoning - Premises, conclusions, assumptions, inferences
Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not typically read above grade level. In the United States, more than three out of ten children watch television at least 35 hours per week. In other western countries, less than one child out of ten watches that much television. In contrast, these other children perform much better than American children on reading tests and more often read above grade level. A majority of these non American children read above their school grade level; a smaller percentage of American children read above grade level. In order to read as well as children in other western countries, American children will have to reduce the amount of time they spend watching television.
The passage depends upon which one of the following assumptions?
(A) American children are not as interested in reading well as children in other western countries.
(B) Other children are more structured in their studies than children in the United States.
(C) If a child wants to become a better reader, he or she will not watch as much television.
(D) If a child watches less television, his or her reading level will increase.
(E) The methods American teachers and parents use to teach reading are not significantly worse than the methods used by teachers and parents in other western countries.
The passage says, there is a study that shows children who watch a lot of TV do not typically read above grade level. This occurrence is common among children in the US as compared to children in other western countries. Non-American children perform better on reading tests compared to American children. The conclusion states that if American children want to read as well as children from other western countries, then American children will have to reduce the amount of time they spend watching TV.
Answer choice A is incorrect as there is no evidence to show that American children are not interested in reading. Answer choice B also has no evidence to support its claims. The passage does say that children who watch lesser TV are better at reading, but that does not necessarily mean that TV is the only thing that has an impact on reading, there could be other factors as well, like the interest of the child, the teacher, the pedagogy etc. Answer choice D is not an assumption, it is a finding that the passage clearly states. Answer choice E is correct as the passage seems to state that watching TV is the only factor that impacts reading. So the passage is assuming that the methods used by the teachers in America and other western countries are the same.
Temporary-services firms supply trained workers to other companies on a temporary basis. Temporary-services firms lose business when the economy shows signs of beginning to weaken. They gain business when the economy begins to recover but often lose business again when the economy stabilizes. These firms have begun to gain business in the present weak economy. The economy, therefore, must be beginning to recover.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the above argument depends?
A) Temporary-services firms are more likely to regain old clients than to acquire new ones when the economy begins to recover
B) Temporary-services firms do not gain business when an already weak economy worsens
C) New companies do not often hire temporary help until they have been in business for some time
D) Companies that use workers from temporary-services firms seldom hire those workers to fill permanent positions
E) Temporary-services firms can most easily find qualified new workers when the economy is at its weakest
The conclusion states that the firms have begun to gain business in the present weak economy which means the economy is beginning to recover. This is based on the assumption that the business will only get better when weak economy recovers and business will not happen when the weak economy worsens further.
A) Incorrect as regaining old clients do not tell us anything about the change in the economy.
B) Correct as we know that business goes down in a weak economy and when an already weak economy worsens then business will be impacted negatively.
C) Incorrect as this answer choice does not say anything about the economy.
D) Incorrect as this option is out of context.
E) Incorrect even though there is a possibility of this, but it does not tell us anything about a changing economy.