Welcome to the LEAP Q&A Forum

Find your questions answered. Here.

GMAT - Sentence Correction - Sentence Correction

Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago (more)

Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.

(A) rather than developing independently from
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
(C) rather than a type whose developments was independent of
(D) instead of developing independently from
(E) instead of a development that was independent of

 

The two splits here are rather and instead. Rather is more appropriate to use in this text. Instead means an alternative and in the context of the sentence, it is not an alternative being referred to. Hence we eliminate answer choices D and E. Answer choice C is wordy. Answer choice B is correct as it clearly conveys the distinction and uses the word 'type' to make the text more specific. 

Being a United States citizen since 1988 and born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee has lived in England and Canada, and first came to the United States in 1961 to study at the Iowa Writers' Workshop. (more)

Being a United States citizen since 1988 and born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee has lived in England and Canada, and first came to the United States in 1961 to study at the Iowa Writers' Workshop.

(A) Being a United States citizen since 1988 and born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee has
(B) Having been a United States citizen since 1988, she was born in Calcutta in 1940; author Bharati Mukherjee
(C) Born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee became a United States citizen in 1988; she has
(D) Being born in Calcutta in 1940 and having been a United States citizen since 1988, author Bharati Mukherjee
(E) Having been born in Calcutta in 1940 and being a United States citizen since 1988, author Bharati Mukherjee

Answer choice C is the correct one as it introduces the subject right after the first description. It very simply conveys the series of events of the subjects life and uses the correct tense to convey the meaning. Answer choice B, D, and E use incorrect tense at the start of the sentence. Compared to answer choice A, answer choice C is more precise and hence the right one. 

In reference to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently expressed anxiety that their prospects for being hired and promoted are being stunted by their habit. (more)

In reference to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently expressed anxiety that their prospects for being hired and promoted are being stunted by their habit.

(A) In reference to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently expressed anxiety that
(B) Referring to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently expressed anxiety about
(C) When referring to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently express anxiety about
(D) With reference to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently expressed anxiety about
(E) Referring to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently express anxiety that

 

The usage of 'in reference to...' is an indirect way of construction. The same thing can be said in a direct way. A better way to put it is 'referring to...' Another split to work with is anxiety about vs anxiety that. The right way to say it is anxiety that. Hence, we boil down to answer choice E as the right answer. All the other answer choices have either of the mistake mentioned above. 

Psychological studies have found that children who are afflicted with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) are difficult to teach, inattentive, and unable to sit still for very long. (more)

Psychological studies have found that children who are afflicted with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) are difficult to teach, inattentive, and unable to sit still for very long.

(A) that children who are afflicted with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) are difficult to teach, inattentive, and
(B) that children who are afflicted with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) are difficult to teach, inattentive, and are
(C) children who are afflicted with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) are difficult to teach, inattentive, and they are
(D) children who are afflicted with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) are difficult to teach, and inattentive, and they are
(E) that children who are afflicted with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) are difficult to teach, they are inattentive, and are

Answer choice A is right as it maintains the parallelism in the sentence; 'difficult to teach, inattentive and unable to sit still for very long'. None of the other answer choices maintain this parallelism among the symptoms of ADD. 

The gyrfalcon, an Arctic bird of prey, has survived a close brush with extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than when the use of DDT was sharply restricted in the early 1970's. (more)

The gyrfalcon, an Arctic bird of prey, has survived a close brush with extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than when the use of DDT was sharply restricted in the early 1970's.

(A) extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than
(B) extinction; its numbers are now five times more than
(C) extinction, their numbers now fivefold what they were
(D) extinction, now with fivefold the numbers they had
(E) extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than what they were

Answer choice A is correct as it uses the correct pronoun 'it' to refer to the gyrfalcon. It also has correctly constructed the quantity part of the text, to convey the comparison properly. Answer choice B is incorrect due to the usage of 'five times more than'. Answer choice C and D are incorrect as they use plural pronouns. Answer choice E is incorrect as the same meaning can be conveyed in a shorter way, like that done in answer choice A.