Parallelism : The principle of parallel construction requires that expressions of similar content and function should be outwardly similar. The likeness of form enables the reader to recognize more readily the likeness of content and function and is considered correct and effective writing in English.
Errors of parallelism occur when two or more linked ideas are expressed in different grammatical structures. These linked ideas are often actions taking place in the same time/tense, expressed by compound verbs or verbals.
Example of a parallel construction error: Whenever Ram meets his friends, he bought clothes and is watching a movie.
What else you can do inside qs leap ?
Corrected: Whenever Ram meets his friends, he buys clothes and watches a movie.
Types of parallel structure:
1) Coordinated ideas of equal rank, connected by “and”, “but”, “or” or “nor” must have the same structure. Hence, a gerund must be paired with a gerund and an infinitive with and infinitive. E.g.: Either “She loves to sing and dance” or “She loves singing and dancing”. Never “She loves to sing and dancing” or “She loves singing and to dance”.
2) Compared ideas: When a comparison is made between two ideas or actions, a gerund is paired with a gerund and an infinitive is paired with an infinitive.
E.g. : “I like playing volleyball more than I like playing cricket”
Incorrect: ” I like playing volleyball more than I like to play cricket”
REMEMBER: Bear in mind possessives while making comparisons. Pay heed to the subject of the sentence.
Typical error: “My car is larger than my friend.”
Correct: “My car is larger than my friend’s car.”
3) Correlative Ideas are ideas that are linked with the correlative conjunctions “both…and”, either…or”, neither…nor”, “not only…but also”.
The ideas that are linked must be paired in a way that follows the principle of parallel construction. Hence, a noun must be paired with a noun. E.g. “Kshitij is industrious not only as a leader, but also as a team player.“
And similarly, a gerund must be paired with a gerund. E.g. “Either she is driving us home, or we’re staying the night.“
Error: “Kshitij is industrious not only as a leader, but also at working with his team.” “Leader” is a noun, but “working with his team” uses a gerund (working) and is thus not complicit with the rules of parallelism.
REMEMBER: Always place correlative conjunctions immediately before the parallel terms.
Example: His boss is both motivating him and challenging him to do better at work. (Correlative conjunction used: both…and)
Incorrect placement would be: His boss both is motivating him and challenging him to do better at work.