GRE - Reading Comprehension - Critical Reading
Arghya Debnath 2 days ago Reading Comprehension | Adverb | Approach techniques | Argument Building | Argument construction | Argument Evaluation | Comparison Words | Critical Reading | Critical Reasoning | Deciphering relevant information | Logical thinking | Reading Comprehension | Reason Identification | Relationship building | Resolve or explain | Sentence Composition | Sentence types | Strengthen the argument | Synonyms | Vocabulary | Weaken the argument | Word Confusion
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The more definitions a given noun has, the more valuable is each one. Multiple definitions, each subtly different from all the others, convey multiple shades of meaning. They expand the uses of the word; language is enriched, thought is widened, and interpretations increase or dilate to fill the potentialities of association. The very impossibility of absoluteness in the definition of certain nouns adds to the levels of
connotation they may reach. The inner life of a writer often says more than most readers can know; the mind of a reader can discover truths that go beyond the intent or perhaps even the comprehension of the writer. And all of it finds expression because a word can mean many things.
Q1. In the context in which it appears, “shades” (line 2) most nearly means
Q2. The passage suggests that a writer’s use of nouns that have multiple definitions can have which of the following effects on the relationship between writer and reader?
A. It can encourage the reader to consider how the writer’s life might have influenced the work.
B. It can cause the reader to become frustrated with the writer’s failure to distinguish between subtle shades of meaning.
C. It can allow the reader to discern in a work certain meanings that the writer did not foresee.
D. It allows the writer to provide the reader with clues beyond the word itself in order to avoid ambiguity.
E. It allows the writer to present unfamiliar ideas to the reader more efficiently.
Experts have differed about where the genus Varanus (monitor lizards) originated. Because most existing species live in Australia, early researchers concluded that Varanus originated in Australia and subsequently island hopped westward along the Indo-Aust (more)
Experts have differed about where the genus Varanus (monitor lizards) originated. Because most existing species live in Australia, early researchers concluded that Varanus originated in Australia and subsequently island hopped westward along the Indo-Australian archipelago. Herpetologist Robert Mertens later argued that Varanus probably originated in the archipelago. Chromosomal analysis has since supported Mertens’ contention, and in addition, (6) geologic evidence points to a collision between the archipelago and the Australian landmass after Varanus evolved—a fact that could account for the genus’ present distribution.
A related puzzle for scientists is the present distribution of Varanus’ largest surviving species, the Komodo dragon. These carnivores live only on four small islands in the archipelago where, scientists note, the prey base is too small to support mammalian carnivores. But the Komodo dragon has recently been shown to manage body temperature much more efficiently than do mammalian carnivores, enabling it to survive on about a tenth of the food energy required by a mammalian carnivore of comparable size
Q1. It can be inferred from the passage that the geographical distribution of the Komodo dragon is
A. currently less restricted than it was at the time researchers first began investigating the origins of the genus Varanus
B. currently more restricted than it was at the time researchers first began investigating the origins of the genus Varanus
C. less restricted than is the distribution of the genus Varanus as a whole
D. more restricted than is the distribution of the genus Varanus as a whole
E. viewed as evidence in favor of the hypothesis that the genus Varanus originated in the Indo-Australian archipelago
Q2. Which of the following elements in the debate over the origin of Varanus is NOT provided in the passage?
A. The evidence that led Mertens to argue that Varanus originated in the Indo-Australian archipelago
B. The evidence that led early researchers to argue that Varanus originated in Australia
C. A possible explanation of how Varanus might have spread to the Indo-Australian archipelago if it had originated in Australia
D. A possible explanation of how Varanus might have spread to Australia if it had originated in the Indo-Australian archipelago
E. An indication of the general present-day distribution of Varanus species between Australia and the Indo-Australian archipelago
Q3. It can be inferred that which of the following is true of the “geologic evidence” (line 6)?
A. It was first noted by Mertens as evidence in favor of his theory about the origins of Varanus.
B. It cannot rule out either one of the theories about the origins of Varanus discussed in the passage.
C. It accounts for the present distribution of the Komodo dragon.
D. It has led to renewed interest in the debate over the origins of Varanus.
E. It confirms the conclusions reached by early researchers concerning the origins of Varanus.
A1. The geographical distribution of the Komodo dragon is compared to the genus of Varanus. According to the passage, the genus Varanus are distributed in Australia and Indo-Australian archipelago. While the Komodo are distributed on four small islands of the archipelago. This indicates that the distribution of Komoda is more restricted compared to genus Varanus as a whole. This is answer choice D.
Adaptation, the decrease in responsiveness that follows continuous stimulation, is common to all sensory systems, including olfaction. (more)
Adaptation, the decrease in responsiveness that follows continuous stimulation, is common to all sensory systems, including olfaction. With continued exposure to chronically present ambient odors, individuals’ perception of odor intensity is greatly reduced. Moreover, these perceptual changes can be profound and durable. It is commonly reported that following extended absences from the odorous environment, reexposure may still fail to elicit perception at the original intensity.
Most research on olfactory adaptation examines relatively transient changes in stimulus detection or perceived intensity—rarely exceeding several hours and often less—but because olfactory adaptation can be produced with relatively short exposures, these durations are sufficient for investigating many parameters of the phenomenon. However, exposures to odors in natural environments often occur over far longer periods, and the resulting adaptations may differ qualitatively from short-term olfactory adaptation. For example, studies show that even brief periods of odorant stimulation produce transient reductions in receptors in the olfactory epithelium, a process termed “receptor fatigue.” Prolonged odor stimulation, however, could produce more long-lasting reductions in response, possibly involving structures higher in the central nervous system pathway.
Q1. According to the passage, the phenomenon of olfactory adaptation may cause individuals who are re-exposed to an odorous environment after an extended absence to
A. experience a heightened perception of the odor
B. perceive the odor as being less intense than it was upon first exposure
C. return to their original level of perception of the odor
D. exhibit a decreased tolerance for the odorous environment
E. experience the phenomenon of adaptation in other sensory systems
Q2. The first sentence of the second paragraph refers to “research on olfactory adaptation” that “examines relatively transient changes in stimulus detection or perceived intensity.” The passage asserts which of the following about the exposures involved in that research?
A. The exposures are of long enough duration for researchers to investigate many aspects of olfactory adaptation.
B. The exposures have rarely consisted of re-exposures following extended absences from the odorous environment.
C. The exposures are intended to reproduce the relatively transient olfactory changes typical of exposures to odors in natural environments.
D. Those exposures of relatively short duration are often insufficient to produce the phenomenon of receptor fatigue in study subjects.
E. Those exposures lasting several hours produce reductions in receptors in the olfactory epithelium that are similar to the reductions caused by prolonged odor stimulation.
A1. The answer to this question is in the first paragraph. The last line says that after an extended absence from an odorous environment, a re-exposure fails to elicit perception that was felt originally. This explanation matches answer choice B, perceive the odor as being less intense than it was upon first exposure. Other answer choices do not have evidence in the passage to support them. Only B is supported by the last line of the first paragraph 'commonly reported.....original intensity'.